EXTRACTION AND CHEMICAL TESTS ON Nigella sativa L. COLLECTED FROM PUNJAB REGION OF INDIA

ABOUT AUHTOR
Saptarshi Samajdar
Centre for Pharmaceutical Sc. And Natural Products, Central University of Punjab

*saptarshisamajdar20@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: Nigella sativa is a wonder plant which has the potential to cure almost all diseases except death. The medicinal value of the plant has been reported quite long ago and finds its place in Holy Quran. Nigella Sativa of Family Ranunculaceae contains chemical components like Thymoquinone, alpha hederin which are anticancer in nature. So in this article emphasis on the different solvent extraction and its chemical tests have been shown from the seeds collected from Punjab, India.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2551

INTRODUCTION
Medicinal plants are used for curing diseases for several centuries in numerous indigenous systems of drugs also as folk medicines. Natural product are an awesome success in our society. The utilization of plant and microorganism secondary metabolites has aided in doubling of our life within the twentieth century. they need reduced pain and suffering, and revolutionized medication by enabling the transplantation of organs. Since their chemical diversity is predicated on biological and geographical diversity, the complete globe is explored for bioprospecting by researchers (Khare 2004). Cancer is one among the foremost threats of recent life, that is taken into account because the second reason behind death when myocardial infarction. Variant individuals die per annum in numerous types of cancer despite tremendous efforts to search out strategies of management and cure. within the last century, nice advances were created in trendy bioscience to regulate malady (Sharma, Yelne et al. 2000)

However several diseases like cancers aren't  curable absolutely. To search out out new and authentic therapies, scientists square measure operating with ancient or people medications in parallel of recent medicine. nigella sativa has been used for healthful functions for hundreds of years. It originated from Southeastern Asia and also employed in ancient Egypt, Greece, geographic area and continent. In Islam, it's considered one among the best forms of healing medication out there. it's a flowering plant, of that seed is employed as a spice. The seed is termed black cumin in English, whereas in Latin it absolutely was known as ‘Panacea’ that means ‘cure all’; in Arabic it's termed as ‘Habbah Sawda’ or ‘Habbat el Baraka’ translated as ‘Seeds of blessing’. it's conjointly referred to as ‘Kalo jeera’ (in Bangladesh), ‘Kalonji’ (in India) and ‘Hak Jung Chou’ in (China). each seeds and oil extracted from this plant square measure employed in healthful functions.
Kalonji (Nigella sativa) could be a dicotyledonous of rananculacea is an incredible herb with a non secularbackground and usually grows within the japanese Europe, geographic area, and Western Asia (Al-Bukhari and Sahi 1976).

The seeds of N. sativa square measure the supply of the active ingredient of this plant.It is a black seed referred by Prophet mohammed as a panacea that's a remedy for all ailments however cannot stop ageing or death. the utilization of black seeds has been mentioned in numerous non secular and ethnic books. Black seeds square measure knownbecause the curative black cumin within the holy bible. within the Unani-Tibb system of drugs that originate from medical man, his modern anatomist and Ibn- sina has regarded black seed as a valuable remedy within the viscusand biological process disorder. Through thousands of years, till the time being, variant individuals within themediterranean region and much East countries use the oil of N. sativa seeds daily as a natural protecting and curative remedy.

 

PLANT CHARACTERISTICS
Taxonomic classification:
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta
Superdivision Spermatophyta
Phylum Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Ranunculales
Family Ranunculaceae
Genus Nigella
Species N. sativa

Common Names:
Black cumin, Fennel Flower, Nutmeg Flower, Black seed, Black Caraway, Roman Coriander, Damascena, Devil in-the-bush, Wild Onion Seed, Kalonji, Kalojeera, Habat ul- Bakarah
Habitat:
N. sativa is native to Southern Europe, North Africa and Southwest Asia and it is cultivated in many countries in the world like Middle Eastern Mediterranean region, South Europe, India, Pakistan, Syria, Turkey, Saudi Arabia.

Plant morphology:
N.sativa is an annually flowering plant which grows from 20 cm to 90 cm in height, with finely divided leaf, the segments of the leaf are narrowly linear to threadlike. The flowers are delicate and are usually white, yellow, pink, pale blue or purple in colour. Number of petals present varies from 5-10. The fruit is large green n capsulated containing 3-7 united follicles, each having numerous black seeds.

Fig: Nigella sativa plant

Characteristics of seed and flower:
Macroscopically, seeds are small dicotyledonous, trigonus, angular, regulose-tubercular, 2-3.5mm1-2 mm, black externally and white inside, odour slightly aromatic and taste bitter. Microscopically, transverse section of seed shows single layered epidermis consisting of elliptical, thick walled cells, covered externally by a papillosecuticle and filled with dark brown contents. Epidermis is followed by 2-4 layers of thick walled tangentially elongated parenchymatous cells, followed by a reddish brown pigmented layer composed of thick walled, rectangular elongated cells. Inner to the pigment layer, is present a layer composed of thick walled rectangular elongated or nearly columnar, elongated cells. Endosperm consists of thin walled, rectangular or polygonal cells mostly filled with oil globules. The powder microscopy of seed powder shows brownish black, parenchymatous cells and oil globules.

Fig: Nigella Flower

Fig:  Nigella Seed

Chemical composition of black seeds
Many active compounds have been isolated, identified and reported in different varieties of black seeds. The most important active compounds are thymoquinone (30%-48%), thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, p-cymene (7%-15%), carvacrol (6%-12%), 4-terpineol (2%-7%), t-anethol (1%-4%), sesquiterpene longifolene (1%-8%) α-pinene and thymol etc. Black seeds also contain some other compounds in trace amounts. Seeds contain two different types of alkaloids; i.e.isoquinoline alkaloids e.g. nigellicimine andnigellicimineN-oxide,and pyrazol alkaloids or indazole ring bearing alkaloids which include nigellidine and nigellicine.

Moreover, N. sativa seeds also contain alpha-hederin, a water soluble pentacyclic triterpene and saponin, a potential anticancer agent. Some other compounds e.g. carvone, limonene, citronellol were also found in trace amounts. Most of the pharmacological properties of N. sativa are mainly attributed to quinine constituents, of which TQ is the most abundant. On storage, TQ yields dithymoquinone and higher oligocondensation products. The seeds of N. sativa contain protein (26.7%), fat (28.5%), carbohydrates (24.9%), crude fibre (8.4%) and total ash (4.8 %). The seeds are also containing good amount of various vitamins and minerals like Cu, P, Zn and Fe etc. The seeds contain carotene which is converted by the liver to vitaminA. Root and shoot are reported to contain vanillic acid.

The seeds reported to contain a fatty oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid (50-60%), oleic acid (20%), eicodadienoic acid (3%) and dihomolinoleic acid (10%). Saturated fatty acids (palmitic, stearic acid) amount to about 30% or less. α-sitosterol is a major sterol, which accounts for 44% and 54% of the total sterols in Tunisian and Iranian varieties of black seed oils respectively, followed by stigmasterol (6.57-20.92% of total sterols).

Examples of various other reported chemical components includes nigellone,avenasterol-5-ene, avenasterol-7-ene, campesterol, cholesterol, citrostadienol, cycloeucalenol, ,gramisterol, lophenol, obtusifoliol, stigmastanol, stigmasterol-7-ene, β-amyrin, butyrospermol, cycloartenol, 24-methylene-cycloartanol,taraxerol, tirucallol, 3-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabino-pyranosyl]-28-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→6)-β-Dgluco-pyranosyl] hederagenin, volatile oil (0.5-1.6%), fattyoil (35.6-41.6%), oleic acid, esters of unsaturated fatty acids with C15 and higher terpenoids, esters of dehydrostearic and linoleic acid, aliphatic alcohol, β-unsaturated hydroxy ketone, hederagenin glycoside, melanthin, melanthigenin, bitter principle, tannin, resin, protein, reducing sugar, glycosidalsaponin, 3-O-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-11-methoxy-16,23-dihydroxy-28-methy-lolean-12 enoate,stigma-5, 22-dien-3-β-D-gluco-pyranoside, cycloart-23-methyl-7, 20, 22-triene-3β, 25-diol, nigellidine-4-O-sulfite, N. mines A3, A4, A5, C, N. mines A1, A2, B1, and B2.

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