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Vishwa Deepak kumar
Departement of Pharmacy,
IEC group of institution,
Greater Noida (U.P), Pin- 201301
Pharmacovigilance is an important and integral part of clinical research. Pharmacovigilance is “defined as the pharmacological science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long term and short term adverse effects of medicines. This addresses what exactly is Pharmacovigilance? What do we know of its benefits and risks, challenges and the future hold for pharmacovigilance in Indian medicine. Here the main focus on the aims and role of Pharmacovigilance in medicines regulation and their Partners. This article describes and discusses the National programme of pharmacovigilance and centre in India. There role in collecting the reports ADRs of medicines. Further effectiveness and risk assessments of therapies are been discussed. The important role played by health care professional, pharmaceutical industries, media, and programmes carried by WHO. Finally the conclusion describes the major challenges and achievements for the future pharmacovigilance programmeand toxicity is not socritical if botanicals are used in traditional forms (Harborne., 1998).
M.Sc in Clinical Research
Osteoarthritis is one type of degenerative joint disease and also known as chronic musculoskeletal disease and it occurs mainly in elderly patients with the severe cause of disability. There are approximately 30 million persons affected with severe osteoarthritis and about 26 million persons are affected with severe osteoarthritis in United States only. The approximate annual cost to the public society in medical care is expected to reach 100 billion dollars by the end of 2020. From this much of cost, most of the cost is spent only in finding out the new diagnosis and treatment for this severe disease and also for the prevention of side effects. Today till 2010, 50% of the persons with the age over 75 suffer from the knee osteoarthritis. 80% of the aged persons with knee osteoarthritis feel difficulty in daily routine activities, while 20 % of the aged persons with mild osteoarthritis feel no difficulty in their daily routine activities.
In this disorder, the joint loses the slippery cartilage those results from ‘wear and tear’ on a joint. Thus the joint becomes large, thick and painful. Thus the bone near the cartilage tries to change and produce overgrowth of the bone. That’s why the tissue near the bone becomes inflamed and ligaments lose and joint muscle becomes weak. So the people with osteoarthritis feel pain when they are doing their normal routine activities.
Roohi Kesharwani1*, Devendra Singh2, Vishal Jacob1
1-Institute Of Foreign Trade And Management Lodhipur Rajput,
Delhi Road, Moradabad, India
2-Raj Kumar Goel Institute Of Technology, Delhi-Meerut Road, Ghaziabad, India
Pharmacovigilance is now accepted to be a continuous process of evaluation accompanied by steps to improve safe use of medicines which involves pharmaceutical companies, regulatory authorities, health professionals and patients. The methodologies have broadened to encompass many different types of study, with spontaneous reporting remaining the cornerstone. The concern for ADRs in highly vulnerable populations is of even greater concern.Pharmacovigilance is especially important since most of the adverse effects are reversible by modifying the dosage or omitting the offending medicine. All medicines (pharmaceuticals and vaccines) haveside effects.In a vast country like India with a population of over 1.2 Billion with vast ethnic variability, different disease prevalence patterns, practice of different systems of medicines, different socioeconomic status, it is important to have a standardized and robust pharmacovigilance and drug safety monitoring programme for the nation. Collecting this information in a systematic manner and analyzing the data to reach a meaningful conclusion on the continued use of these medicines is the rationale to institute this program for India. In this review article various hospitals survey are done and the survey questionnaire was analyzed question wise and their percentage value was calculated. Our study strongly suggests that there is greater need to create awareness and to promote the reporting of ADR among healthcare professionals of the country. Only such approach can greatly influence in bringing reporting culture among healthcare professionals and may improve the reporting rates of ADR in our country. Pharmacists, as doctors opined that their involvement may increase the reporting rate, have a greater role to play in the area of pharmacovigilance.
Final Year Graduate Student
Sri Lakshmi Narasimha College of Pharmacy,
Palluru, Chittoor-517132, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Clinical trials are the set of procedures in medical research and drug development that are conducted to allow safety and efficacy data to be collected for place only interventions. These trials can take place only after satisfactory information has been gathered on the quality of the country where the trial is taking place.
Depending on the type of product and the stage of its development, investigators enrol healthy volunteers and patients into small pilot studies, followed by larger scale studies in patients that often compare the new product with the currently prescribed treatment. As positive safety and efficacy data are gathered, the number of patients is typically increased. Clinical trials can vary in size from a single centre in one country to multicenter trials in multiple countries.
Rathi Orthopaedic & research centre,
The knowledge of breast cancer development and progression has grown in recent years and relatively development of novel therapeutic strategies, but for cancer mortalities in women breast cancer stands at 2nd position as cause.
In U.S. Approximately 39970 women & 450 men in the U.S. will be diagnosed from the disease in 2011. Breast cancer is a hormone dependent disease. Breast cancer occurs when breast epithelial cells grows in abnormal way. HER2/neu, ER, PR, BRCA1, BRCA2 are the well known influencing factors responsible for breast cancer initiation. The major issues that limit the currently available breast cancer treatment are high cost, poor availability and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. To overcome this problem researchers are working on several novel approaches i.e. “Novel drug targets & Novel target therapies”.
Since from past few years, mammogram is playing a huge role for decreasing incidence rate in developed countries. Breast cancer is adversely affecting the “quality of life” of patients and its impact has been increasing on the Social capital, population structure and economic growth. Need for novel anti breast cancer agent and novel early diagnosis technique is necessary to combat one of the most serious crises facing Human development.
Nishant kumar singh
ICRI (Ahm) and Cranfield University
Over 3 decades HIV/AIDS have been a major globally accepted challenge, from endemic to a catastrophic pandemic & explodes globally. Estimates says 33.3 million HIV +ve and 2.6 million newly HIV infected people are in 2009. Since the beginning of epidemic, nearly 30 million people have died from AIDS related cause. From chimpanzees to human and then human to human (migration, MSM, HS, IDU, MTC etc) and ultimately it transformed into pandemic. After 30 years we have advanced our treatment & Medicare knowledge of HIV and AIDS. Our scientist has developed several successful targets and drugs based on them, a highly effective therapy HAART currently in use (managing viral load & cell count for better patient survival rate) showing good results. Still HIV/AIDS is incurable, WHY? It shows the need of critical thinking from the very 1st initial step i.e. TARGET. HIV itself is the target; biotech and Pharmaceutical Company must consider nanotechnology & homologous approach for CCR5. Though it seems that we have control over it but if this goes out same way, than one day just due to the HIV typical characteristic of mutation and recombination the worst Catastrophic sub Saharan-Africa epidemic will become Pandemic.[i]
Ritesh Shah*, Gaurav Chandawat, Rahul Jadav, Bhoomi Arora
Institute Of Clinical Research (India),
Ahmedabad, Gujarat-380013, India
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicates approximately 1 to 2 of 1,000 pregnancies, with pulmonary embolism (PE) being a leading cause of maternal mortality and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) an important cause of maternal morbidity. The main reason for the increased risk of thromboembolism in pregnancy is hypercoagulability, which has likely evolved to protect women from the bleeding challenges of miscarriage and childbirth. Women are at a 4- to 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with when they are not pregnant. Eighty percent of the thromboembolic events in pregnancy are venous, with an incidence of 0.61 to 1.72 per 1000 pregnancies.Includes a history of thrombosis, inherited and acquired thrombophilia, maternal age greater than 35, certain medical conditions, and various complications of pregnancy and childbirth.
Despite the increased risk of VTE during pregnancy and the postpartum period, most women do not require anticoagulation. The intensity of the anticoagulation will depend on the indication and the monitoring will depend on the intensity. At the time of delivery, anticoagulation should be manipulated to reduce the risk of bleeding complications while minimizing the risk of thrombosis. There are no large trials of anticoagulants in pregnancy, and recommendations are based on case series, extrapolations from nonpregnant patients and the opinion of experts. Nonetheless, anticoagulants are believed to improve the outcome of pregnancy for women who have, or have had, VTE.
A REVIEW ON DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND SURVEY OF PHYSICIANS PRESCRIPTION HABBITS IN MANDSAUR
Vishal Sharma1*, Alankar Shrivastava2
1Department of Pharmaceutics,
2Senior Lecturer Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis
B.R.NAHATA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
(A SIRO Recognized by DSIR, Ministry of science & Technology, GOI)
MANDSAUR (M.P.) 458001
Antibiotics are chemical substances, either produced naturally by microorganisms or manufactured synthetically, that are lethal to other microorganisms. Antibiotic resistance (AR) describes the ability of a microorganism to be unaffected by (or resistant to) the effects of a particular antibiotic. A problem arises when a animal or person becomes infected with a disease-causing bacterium that harbors antibiotic resistance to the drug that would be the most suitable treatment for that infection.
India is a vast country of immense diversity.and for that the effectiveness of the antimicrobial was not same to all ,and the administration of them will either really cure or may act in opposite manner and will leads to the development os the antimicrobial resistance which is only due to the unaware use of the antibiotics.we had conducted the survey on some prescriptions of registered medicinal practitioner and find that there was an irrational use of antibiotic in our on community and this might be very serious as our survey is on the smallest level and what it may cause globally.So the use of antibiotic should be controlled.
Patel Punita s*, Patel Brilina M, Arora Bhoomi
Institute of clinical research India
Bullous Pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease appearing predominantly in the elderly. Bullous Pemphigoidcharacterized by an autoimmune response to 2 hemidesmosomal proteins within the dermal–epidermal junction, These proteins, called BP antigen 1 (BPAG1 or AgBP230), and BPAG2 (or AgBP180 or collagen XVII) have respective molecular masses of 230 and 180. While BP180 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with an extracellular domain BP230 localizes intracellularly and associates with the hemidesmosomal plaque. The disease is characterized clinically by tight bullae, with clear content, often large, developing primarily on the edge of erythematous plaques. Intense itching is common. The disease is primarily treated with systemic corticosteroids. Now,The increased knowledge of the development of noveltherapeutic strategies for Bullous Pemphigoids.
Renu Singh*, Saumya Das, Sanjita Das
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, NIET,
Greater Noida, U.P., 201306.
Cognitive deficits have long been recognized as severe and consistent neurological disorders associated with numerous psychiatric and neurodegenerative states such as Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems, and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegerative disorder which affects older individuals and may progress to a totally vegetative state. Atrophy of cortical and sub-cortical areas is associated with deposition of β-amyloid protein in the form of senile plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. There is marked cholinergic deficiency in the brain, though other neurotransmitter systems are also affected. Various measures to augement cholinergic transmitter in the brain have been tried. The relatively cerebroselective anti-ChEs have been approved for clinical use. Nootropic agents are clinically used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities and for improving memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side-effects associated with these agents have made their utility limited. Many experimental models are currently available for the evaluation of agents that affect learning and memory processes. In-vitro methods inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity is measured by determining IC50 with the help of Log probit analysis. In ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibition method the dose response relationship determined for drugs such as physostigmine and tacrine Agents which are H3 receptor agonist are evaluated for [3H] Ach release activity in rat using rat brain slices. The binding affinity of potential nicotinic cholinergic agonist in brain using agonist ligand is determined by [3H]-N- methyl carbamylcholine binding nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat frontal cortex. In In-vivo methods the inhibitory passive avoidance the test are carried on animals to test the learning and memory capacity of animal by suppressing a particular behavior. It includes step down, step through, two compartment test, up-hill avoidance, scopolamine induced test, and ischemia induced amnesia, memory impairments in basal forebrain. In active avoidance conditioned stimulus is given to the animal, which gives noxious stimulus as a result. It includes runway avoidance, shuttle box avoidance, jumping avoidance. In discrimination learning animals have no choice between the conditioned stimuli. Studies on aged monkeys provides additional advantage for neurobehavioral animal model of aging in that many of behavioral processes thought to be affected by aging.
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